Available online 2 September 2 September Publisher Summary Chlorinated solvents are one of the contaminants most frequently encountered in environmental forensic investigations. This chapter provides a presentation of the chemistry of the most commonly used chlorinated solvents, degradation pathways for these compounds, a historical perspective regarding their use and production, and forensic techniques available for source identification and age dating. There are many chlorinated solvents of interest encountered in forensic investigations; the focus of this chapter is on Trichloroethylene, Perchloroethylene, 1, 1, 1-Trichloroethane, Carbon tetrachloride and Methylene chloride. This chapter illustrates that the high solubility of most chlorinated solvents is of special interest given their preference to dissolve into soil pore water and groundwater. The detection of additives that are associated with a particular compound or time period, isotopic analysis and molar ratio analysis of the degradation products of these chlorinated solvents are the primary forensic techniques presented in this chapter. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Datink: Dating inks
Peerenboom, a wealthy Toronto businessman, had been hospitalized after a crash a few months prior. Previous batches of letters—mailed to friends, neighbours and colleagues—falsely accused him of being a child molester and an anti-Semite. Now came an attempt to incite violence against him and his family. Peerenboom contacted police as soon as the first hate mail appeared in , but he also opened his own investigation, contributing to a widening gyre of litigation that has pulled in friends, neighbours, private investigators, high-powered attorneys and police forces in the U.
In five separate lawsuits and thousands of pages of court documents, there are allegations of character assassination, DNA theft, extortion and even accusations of murder.
Ink ink dating cost analysis expert witnesses may be an important factor in reaching a forensic document examination, patent law, ink differentiation and the leaders of this people cause them to err and they that are led of them are of the long wooden houses on the other side of the enclosure was ablaze.
Denser materials like oak flooring will generally show sharper lines of demarcation than polymer e. The absence of a carpet pad often leads to sharper lines. Irregular patterns are common in situations of post flashover conditions, long extinguishing times, or building collapse. These patterns may result from the effects of hot gases, flaming and smoldering debris, melted plastics, or ignitable liquids. The presence of ignitable liquids is suspected, supporting evidence in the form of a laboratory analysis should be sought.
It should be noted that many plastic materials release hydrocarbon fumes when they pyrolyze or burn. These fumes may have an odor similar to that of petroleum products and can be detected by combustible gas indicators when no ignitable liquid accelerant has been used. It should be noted that pyrolysis products, including hydrocarbons, can be detected in laboratory analysis of fire debris in the absence of the use of accelerants. It can be helpful for the laboratory, when analyzing carpet debris, to burn a portion of the comparison sample and run a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis on both samples.
By comparing the results of the burned and unburned caparison samples with those from the fire debris sample, it may be possible to determine whether or not hydrocarbon residues in the debris sample were products of pyrolysis or residue of an accelerant.
Edited By Jay A. Saukko and Max M. Introduction of new analytical techniques has opened the door to new and improved methods for the analysis of inks, toner, and paper. A second driving force has been changes in the materials and technologies used to produce documents, which have fueled the need for new methods of analysis.
In the past, document examiners relied heavily on chromatographic techniques such as thin-layer chromatography when it came to the analysis of inks and paper. Techniques such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, laser desorption mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectrometry are now being discovered by document examiners.
This is of great help to the huge issue of ink dating in forensic science. Studying six commercial ballpoint pens at a 20 week period of time was the first approach. However, if a mathematical model is to be constructed, a wider sample of commercial ballpoint pens must be studied, for a broader period of time, in order to provide a useful tool.
Aug, By Eric Karsh, M. Many of these timber-built structures remain standing and are still in use today, including factories, warehouses, schools, temples, and churches — some dating as far back as the seventh century. Famous examples include the Courtesy of Martin Tessler. As a result, timber has more or less been relegated for use as a material for smaller structures.
And with the development of efficient and versatile light wood-frame construction monopolizing the low-rise residential market in North America, wood initially all but lost large portions of the non-residential construction market to steel and concrete. Over the past two or three decades, however, timber engineering and construction has experienced significant and transformative advances, setting wood products up for a comeback.
These include new engineered wood products, including solid panel products such as cross-laminated timber CLT , computer numerically controlled CNC fabrication, versatile high-efficiency timber connectors, and progress in fire protection engineering. With technical progress and increased demand for wood products comes greater economic opportunities. Today the most ancient construction material, and the only one that is naturally grown by the sun, is becoming more high-tech and still has considerable development potential in store.
This technical progress seems to have combined with other positive influences to reposition wood on the world stage. A renewed interest in timber as an architectural medium, combined with strong trends in sustainability, is promoting the expanded use of wood in several countries including Canada, the U.
CSI and Forensics in the News
Undertaken with a view to establishing a fully, internationally accepted, well proven and correctly underpinned certification of a work of art. Items which may have a specific signature claim, those with an earlier expert qualification of authenticity, as well as those that currently have none. This requires dedicated, detailed, expert academic and archival research, which is usually necessary to conduct internationally, along with a variety of forensic applications.
Forensic scientists and legal professionals have dubbed this the “CSI effect” and in Forensic Document Examination its manifestation is in the area of ink dating. Barely a week goes by were I don’t have to field an enquiry on this topic.
By Leah Froats September 14, 2: As the tattooed population knows all too well, the process of tattooing consists of placing insoluble deposits of pigmented ink just below the epidermis, or outermost layer of skin. As they also know, your body does pretty much anything it can to get that ink out — which is why new tattoos excrete ink, plasma, and lymphatic fluid through the epidermis while healing.
The ink-lymph mixture is carried through the lymph nodes, whose job it is to process and filter harmful substances from the body. None of this is really news — tattooed individuals have displayed pigmented lymph nodes for decades. But what is it, exactly, that the lymph nodes are filtering out? Black tattoos are frequently made of iron oxides and carbon, while colored inks can contain nickel, chromium, manganese or cobalt.
An example of green ink particles that leached into a lymph node. Schreiver, et al According to the study, the two most common ink ingredients are carbon black and titanium dioxide, the latter as a white shade commonly used for mixing. And just how big are the particles in those compounds? On average, particles range in size from as large as nanometers to as small as 1 micrometer To discover what particles end up in the lymph nodes of tattooed individuals, researchers focused on the nodes of four tattooed cadavers and one non-tattooed control.
The study revealed tattoo particle pigmentation in two out of the four tattooed donors — specifically, blue and green pigments. Researchers also showed that ink deposits in them results in a chronic enlargement of the exposed nodes.
Supplemental Support List
I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loafe and invite my soul, I lean and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. My tongue, every atom of my blood, form’d from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin, Hoping to cease not till death.
Creeds and schools in abeyance, Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten, I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard, Nature without check with original energy. The atmosphere is not a perfume, it has no taste of the distillation, it is odorless, It is for my mouth forever, I am in love with it, I will go to the bank by the wood and become undisguised and naked, I am mad for it to be in contact with me.
Have you reckon’d a thousand acres much?
Forensic type investigations into ink contamination during manufacturing process (e.g. plasticisers absorbed from hoses, etc.) UV Cure technologies: UV-Cure ink formulation characterisation and impurity structural elucidation including the properties and interaction of the monomers, photoinitiators, pigment, additives and oligomers.
Chinese seal and red seal paste Yinnihe seal paste box , Ming dynasty There are two types of seal paste depending on what base material they are made of. The standard colour is vermilion red or lighter or darker shades of red but other colours can be used such as black, navy, etc. The red paste is made from finely pulverized cinnabar , mixed with castor oil and silk strands. The silk strands bind the mixture together to form a very thick substance.
It has a very oily appearance and tends to be a bright red in colour. The red paste is made from finely pulverized cinnabar, mixed with castor oil and moxa punk.
You are stupid af. She was smiling and laughing, acting like a typical carefree sixteen year old; posting pictures on social media like nothing ever happened, just days after these events. Sure, any grown man who would go along with any advances from a girl her age is either mentally disturbed, or an idiot, or both. However, and in conclusion, if she did not give that guy a reason to think she was dtf, then Kim Kardashian is a virgin.
Jackie B We will get the true story someday, but not from her. Her credibility as an innocent victim is only an illusion created by her, the media and law enforcement not releasing evidence.
Ink Analysis Detection of fabricated photocopies We are interested in your experiences with authenticators such as PSA, JSA, Mike Gutierrez, Global, GAI, ACE and any other individuals who purport that they offer authentication services without proper forensics credentials or certification.
December 24, at 7: A few days later she contacted police and said that Camacho had kicked her and threatened to kill her. The court gave her a restraining order. Camacho was charged with domestic violence, but the charge was later dropped. At some point the wife began proceedings for a divorce. The divorce was issued on Dec. Police were not contacted.
A History: ’s Word of the Year
Science Would find everything and would give solution too. In the real and urgent world of serious crime, suspects have been arrested and imprisoned often enough to have reasonably fresh prints. Your point really applies chiefly to career criminals. Of course, if, as some people advocate, everyone were fingerprinted, the situation would be different. Laska To a fingerprint examiner, change means the actual minutiae differ.
acceptance in the Forensic Document Examiner community. In general it is accepted that dating techniques apply to ballpoint pen inks and that it may be possible to determine whether an ink has been applied to the paper within.
Leave the Armadillos Alone: About — cases of leprosy , which is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae and results in nerve damage if not treated early, are diagnosed in the US each year. But a third of the patients had never traveled to locales with a history of leprosy. Many of them lived in the southern U. Armadillos are known to carry leprosy—in fact, they are the only wild animals other than humans upon which the picky M. But it was hard to prove as long as both humans and armadillos were carrying fairly generic, readily available strains of the bacteria—strains that could have come from anywhere.
Now, publishing in the New England Journal of Medicine, scientists have sequenced the genome of a rare leprosy strain found in a Texas armadillo, compared with the strains in human patients, and found them to be the same—very good proof that the disease is passing back and forth between these species. Armadillos are not alone in carrying diseases dangerous to humans: Less armadillo on the menu, for starters. New England Journal of Medicine, ;